Rural Enrollees in Medicare Advantage Have Been Switching to Traditional Medicare

March 1, 2021
MHE Staff

More than one out of every 10 seniors enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan and living in a rural area switched to traditional Medicare in the last few years, prior to the pandemic. The switch was driven primarily due to low satisfaction with care access, according to a study recently published in Health Affairs from researchers at Drexel University’s Dornsife School of Public Health.

More than one out of every 10 seniors enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan and living in a rural area switched to traditional Medicare in the last few years, prior to the pandemic. The switch was driven primarily due to low satisfaction with care access, according to a study recently published in Health Affairs from researchers at Drexel University’s Dornsife School of Public Health.

The findings, among the first to look at rates of switching between the two options among rural versus non-rural enrollees found a similar, yet more muted, effect among nonrural enrollees, with 2.2% of traditional Medicare enrollees and 5% of Medicare Advantage enrollees making the switch.

According to the report, switching was most common among Medicare Advantage enrollees who experienced higher costs, such as hospitalization or long-term facility stay. Among those requiring more expensive services, rural enrollees were about twice as likely to switch from Medicare Advantage to traditional Medicare as non-rural enrollees (16.8% versus 8.3%), suggesting that limited provider options in rural areas were a major factor leading consumers to change their coverage plan.

“We studied 11 factors that might make someone switch their health insurance and found that much of this transfer from Medicare Advantage to traditional Medicare among rural residents came from limited provider availability. However, care quality or out-of-pocket costs played a limited role.” said lead author of the report, Sungchul Park, PhD, an assistant professor in the Dornsife School of Public Health. “It’s not that rural patients were sicker than nonrural patients, they might just have a much tougher time than their counterparts did when it came to finding an approved medical provider.”

Unlike traditional Medicare, which is administered by the CMS, Medicare Advantage is operated by private companies approved by the government. Both traditional Medicare and Medicare Advantage include hospital (Part A) and medical (Part B) insurance. However, funding for the two programs differs and influences how they’re delivered.

In traditional Medicare, the federal government pays for services performed, but the government pays Medicare Advantage insurers using fixed, pre-negotiated rates. This creates incentive for Medicare Advantage plans to implement cost saving measures, such as programs to keep their enrollees healthy, implement networks and require prior authorization restrictions to care.

“Medicare Advantage plans might have lower premiums and/or supplemental coverage in some areas, but that value is not enough for patients in more restrictive provider networks that prevent them from accessing care they need,” said Park. “We found that levels of satisfaction with out-of-pocket costs had little very little influence in patients who decided to change their plan.”