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The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends surgical procedures for cataracts, glaucoma, and DR, using the following specified procedures. For cataracts, small incision phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation with either a biaxial or coaxial approach is recommended. For primary open-angle glaucoma, effective medical, laser, and incisional surgical approaches for lowering intraocular pressure are recommended. For DR, recommendations call for laser photocoagulation surgery for noncenter-involved DME and pan-retinal photocoagulation surgery for PDR.
Pharmaceutical options as first-line treatment for wet AMD and center-involved DME with vision loss include anti-VEGF agents. Anti-VEGFs have reduced the incidence of AMD-induced blindness by nearly 50% in some countries. Early detection and treatment are critical for optimizing outcomes with anti-VEGFs. The anti-VEGFs aflibercept, brolucizumab, and ranibizumab are approved by the FDA for use as intravitreal treatment of retinal problems to improve or maintain vision.