Those who suffer from obesity, heavy smoking and short sleep have a higher chance of developing mass spectrometry (MS) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), which can often lead to multiple myeloma.
According to new research published in Blood Advances, researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and other institutes investigated obesity, obesity-related comorbidities and lifestyle factors and their associations with the prevalence of MGUS in the United States, as studies evaluating these comorbidities and lifestyle factors for MGUS are limited.
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MGUS is a condition where certain blood cells grow abnormally and can result to the development of multiple myeloma. Research states that doctors don't always check for MGUS regularly because it's not clear who would benefit the most from closer monitoring.
Some factors like age, gender, race and family history are linked to MGUS, but the connection between obesity and MGUS is not as clear as it is with multiple myeloma.
In a exposure assessment survey study made of folks at a higher risk for multiple myeloma, the PROMISE study is the first of its kind in the U.S., focusing on screening individuals at high risk for MM.
Eligible participants include those who are Black or of African descent, or non-Black individuals with a family history of hematological malignancy or MM precursor condition.
In past screening studies focusing on the development of MGUS, traditional risk factors observed included older age, male sex, Black race, and family history of hematologic malignancies.
In this study enrollment begins at age 30, except for those with two or more first-degree family members affected, who can enroll at age 18.
The survey gathered information about participants' lifestyles, using questions adapted from well-established surveys in other large studies.
To understand smoking habits, participants were asked if they had ever smoked more than 20 packs of cigarettes in their life, and if so, to report their average daily cigarette consumption over different age ranges.
Heavy smoking, defined as 30 pack-years, was measured by multiplying the packs smoked per day by the years of smoking.
Alcohol consumption was assessed by asking about the frequency of consuming different types of drinks, and the average daily alcohol intake was calculated based on drink frequency and alcohol content. Participants were categorized into non-drinkers, light, moderate, and heavy drinkers.
Physical activity was measured by asking about weekly time spent on various activities, and the data were used to calculate total MET-hours/week.
Additionally, participants reported sleep duration and snoring frequency, with short sleep defined as less than 6 hours per day and frequent snoring noted.
Between February 2019 and March 2022, the study screened 3,180 folks with 2,628 participants completing the survey (83% response rate).
The study included people from all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.
Most MS-MGUS cases were of the IgG isotype (64%), with a prevalence of 9% in the total cohort.
The study revealed an association between obesity and MS-MGUS, with obese individuals having 73% higher odds of MS-MGUS compared to normal weight individuals.
Additionally, heavy smoking and high levels of physical activity were also linked to MS-MGUS.
Lastly, abnormal sleep of less than 6 hours per day was associated with MS-MGUS, and this remained significant after adjusting for other factors.
The PROMISE study focused on a group of high-risk folks in the U.S. and found possible links between factors like obesity, physical activity, heavy smoking and short sleep duration with MGUS.
Researchers admit these findings need further confirmation; however they could help identify groups that might benefit from specific screening and prevention measures.