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Therapeutic Recommendations, Evidence-Based Approaches, and Strategies in Treating Eye Disease
The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends surgical procedures for cataracts, glaucoma, and DR, using the following specified procedures. For cataracts, small incision phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation with either a biaxial or coaxial approach is recommended. For primary open-angle glaucoma, effective medical, laser, and incisional surgical approaches for lowering intraocular pressure are recommended. For DR, recommendations call for laser photocoagulation surgery for noncenter-involved DME and pan-retinal photocoagulation surgery for PDR.
Pharmaceutical options as first-line treatment for wet AMD and center-involved DME with vision loss include anti-VEGF agents. Anti-VEGFs have reduced the incidence of AMD-induced blindness by nearly 50% in some countries. Early detection and treatment are critical for optimizing outcomes with anti-VEGFs. The anti-VEGFs aflibercept, brolucizumab, and ranibizumab are approved by the FDA for use as intravitreal treatment of retinal problems to improve or maintain vision.